Useful Medical Information
Members of staff at Up and Running have written several articles related to sports injuries and their treatment. The articles are available as PDFs from this page of the web site.
- Article 1: Knee Pain: Patello-Femoral Pain Syndrome (Anterior Knee Pain)
- Article 2: Ilio-Tibial Band Syndrome
- Article 3: Osgood-Schlatters Disease
- Article 4: Jumper's Knee
- Article 5: Knee Ligament Injuries
- Article 6: Knee Meniscus Tears
- Article 7: Patella Dislocations
- Article 8: Chondral (Bone) Defects of the Knee
- Article 9: Plantar Fasciitis (Pain in Sole/Heel)
A summary of each article is included below:
Article 1: Knee Pain: Patello-Femoral Pain Syndrome (Anterior Knee Pain)
Knee pain can result from a number of different structures and in a variety of ways. Patello-Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a very painful condition. It is the most common overuse syndrome affecting the sporting population and 25% of the general population are affected at some time. Although quite debilitating, PFPS can be treated conservatively with appropriate physiotherapy (physical therapy) techniques and exercises.
Download a PDF copy of Article 1: Knee Pain: Patello-Femoral Pain Syndrome (Anterior Knee Pain)
Article 2: Ilio-Tibial Band Syndrome
Ilio-Tibial Band (ITB) Syndrome is a common affliction particularly affecting runners, cyclists and walkers but can affect anyone and is usually felt in the lateral (outside) thigh area between the hip and the knee. Proper diagnosis from a medical health professional and appropriate treatment can correct or reduce the causes and pain associated with ITB Syndrome.
Download a PDF copy of Article 2: Ilio-Tibial Band Syndrome
Article 3: Osgood-Schlatters Disease
Osgood-Schlatters Disease is actually not a disease at all, it is a condition brought about by repetitive muscular action of the Quadriceps muscles. This in turn tugs on the attachment of the Patella Tendon where it inserts into the Tibial Tuberosity - the bony lump at the top of the Tibia (shin bone).
Download a PDF copy of Article 3: Osgood-Schlatters Disease
Article 4: Jumper's Knee
Patella tendinopathy, also known as jumper's knee, is a relatively common condition that causes pain in the anterior (front) aspect of the knee. This pain is usually of a sharp nature and occurs when overloading the extensor mechanism. The extensor mechanism, which includes the quadriceps muscles, the patella and patella tendon, connects the quadriceps muscles to the patella (kneecap) and then on to the tibia (shin) via the patella tendon.
Download a PDF copy of Article 4: Jumper's Knee
Article 5: Knee Ligament Injuries
Ligaments are known as passive or static stabilisers because unlike muscles they cannot contract.. Ligaments act across joints attaching from bone to bone. The knee has four major ligaments whose job it is to stabilise the joint. These four ligaments are the Medial Collateral Ligament, the Lateral Collateral Ligament, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and the Posterior Cruciate Ligament.
Download a PDF copy of Article 5: Knee Ligament Injuries
Article 6: Knee Meniscus Tears
The Menisci can be injured in one of two ways generally speaking; sudden trauma or wear and tear.
In cases of sudden trauma the most common mechanism for injury is in weight bearing, with the foot fixed, the knee bent and a rotational component. Liken this to a footballer or rugby player with studs fixed into the ground who is trying to change direction. He or she is bearing weight, knee bent to lower the centre of gravity and foot fixed while twisting to change direction. These forces combine to tear the cartilage in a variety of ways. Of course these factors can be caused in many sports or activities and are not only reproduced in football or rugby but the mechanism is similar.
General wear and tear can also cause meniscal injuries and there is often little difference in the appearance between these and sudden trauma tears. In fact wear and tear is actually many small traumas happening over a long period of time.
Download a PDF copy of Article 6: Knee Meniscus Tears
Article 7: Patella Dislocations
Patella (kneecap) dislocations are quite common and can be very disconcerting to the sufferer. The Patella sits in a groove (Trochlea) in the Femur and usually glides up and down in this Femoral Trochlea during movement. Dislocation occurs when the Patella is forced out of this groove, usually laterally, causing pain, swelling and temporary deformity of the knee joint. Quite often the Patella relocates spontaneously when the patient moves the leg but if this does not happen then it must be relocated by a suitably qualified medical professional
Perhaps even more common is a Patella Subluxation, a partial dislocation that relocates before the point of full dislocation. There is still pain and swelling because of the bone on bone friction and in either a subluxation or dislocation the patient will suffer apprehension and instability.
Download a PDF copy of Article 7: Patella Dislocations
Article 8: Chondral (Bone) defects of the knee
The articulating surfaces of the knee joint have a hard, shiny coating called the Articular Cartilage. This Articular Cartilage is incredibly durable and prevents much wear and tear of the bones as the surfaces are repeatedly rubbed together during everyday actions such as walking, running, squatting etc. Damage to the articular cartilage is called a Chondral Defect.
Download a PDF copy of Article 8: Chondral (Bone) defects of the knee
Article 9: Plantar Fasciitis (Pain in Sole/Heel)
Plantar Fasciitis is best described as pain in the sole of the foot or under the heel. It is often in the arch of the foot but can cause pain anywhere from the heel to the ball of the foot. It is characterised by an ache in the underside of the foot on weight bearing. It often follows bouts of exercise particularly running or walking and can appear to change in the exact area of pain, sometimes in the arch, sometimes in the heel etc.
Download a PDF copy of Article 9:Plantar Fasciitis (Pain in Sole/Heel)
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